Fuel price chart year since 1965-2008 in Indonesian

chart

conclusion
1. Indonesian premium rose from Rp 0.5 (1966) to Rp 5500 (December 2008). The increase of 11,000 times, well below Indonesia’s growth rate for 32 years
2. Price of diesel rose from Rp 0.4 (1966) to Rp 5500 (December 2008). The increase is more than 13,750 times from the original
3. Kerosene prices rose from Rp 0.3 (1966) to Rp 2500 (December 2009)
Dramastis total increase is a far cry compared to the rise in world crude oil. In 1966, the world crude oil price U.S. $ 3.10 and rose to an average of U.S. $ 70 per barrel. Over the span of 42 years, crude oil only rose no more than 30 times.
Using the exchange rate in 1970 (devaluation of the rupiah, U.S. $ 1 is equal to USD 400), then the price of fuel in the ’60s era approaching 1 cents per liter or 1.6 dollars per barrel (crude oil price ~ $ 4). Current fuel prices reached 50 cents (price of crude oil ~ 70 dollars). Thus, the increase in fuel ril Indonesia (rupiah conversion 2008 to 1968) compared to 50-fold increase in world crude oil which is just less than 30-fold

Source : http://nusantaranews.wordpress.com/2008/12/04/28-kali-kenaikan-bbm-sejak-1966/

Jenis Jenis Animasi

1.animasi cel
Animasi cel berasal dari kata “celluloid”, yaitu bahan dasar dalam pembuatan animasi jenis ini ketika tahun-tahun awal adanya animasi. Animasi cel merupakan lembaran-lembaran yang membentuk animasi tunggal, masing-masing cel merupakan bagian yang terpisah sebagai objek animasi. misalnya ada tiga buah animasi cel, cel pertama berisi satu animasi karakter, cel kedua berisi animasi karakter lain, dan cel terakhir berisi latar animasi. Ketiga animasi cel ini akan disusun berjajar, sehingga ketika dijalankan animasinya secara bersamaan, terlihat seperti satu kesatuan. Contoh animasi jenis ini adalah film kartun seperti Tom and Jerry, Mickey Mouse dan Detectif Conan.

2.animasi frame
Animasi frame merupakan animasi yang paling sederhana, dimana animasinya didapatkan dari rangkaian gambar yang bergantian ditunjukan, pergantian gambar ini diukur dalam satuan fps (frame per second). Contoh animasi ini adalah ketika kita membuat rangkaian gambar yang berbeda pada tepian sebuah buku, kemudian kita buka buku tersebut sedemikian rupa menggunakan jempol, maka gambar akan terlihat bergerak. Dalam Macromedia Flash, animasi ini dibuat dengan teknik animasi keyframe, teknik ini sering digunakan untuk mendapatkan animasi objek yang tidak bisa didapatkan dengan teknik animasi tween, teknik animasi path dan teknik animasi script.

3.animasi sprite
Pada animasi ini setiap objek bergerak secara mandiri dengan latar belakang yang diam, setiap objek animasi disebut “sprite”. Tidak seperti animasi cel dan animasi frame, setiap objek dalam animasi sprite bergerak tidak dalam waktu bersamaan, memiliki besar fps yang berbeda dan pengeditan hanya dapat dilakukan pada masing-masing objek sprite. Contoh animasi ini adalah animasi rotasi planet, burung terbang dan bola yang memantul. Penggunaan animasi jenis ini sering digunakan dalam Macromedia Director.

4.animasi path
Animasi path adalah animasi dari objek yang gerakannya mengikuti garis lintasan yang sudah ditentukan. Contoh animasi jenis ini adalah animasi kereta api yang bergerak mengikuti lintasan rel. Biasanya dalam animasi path diberi perulangan animasi, sehingga animasi terus berulang hingga mencapai kondisi tertentu. Dalam Macromedia Flash, animasi jenis ini didapatkan dengan teknik animasi path, teknik ini menggunakan layer tersendiri yang didefinisikan sebagai lintasan gerakan objek.

5.animasi spline
Pada animasi spline, animasi dari objek bergerak mengikuti garis lintasan yang berbentuk kurva, kurva ini didapatkan dari representasi perhitungan matematis. Hasil gerakan animasi ini lebih halus dibandingkan dengan animasi path. Contoh animasi jenis ini adalah animasi kupu-kupu yang terbang dengan kecepatan yang tidak tetap dan lintasan yang berubah-ubah. Dalam Macromedia Flash, animasi jenis ini didapatkan dengan teknik animasi script, teknik ini menggunakan action script yang membangkitkan sebuah lintasan berbentuk kurva dari persamaan matematis.

6.animasi vektor
Animasi vektor mirip dengan animasi sprite, perbedaannya hanya terletak pada gambar yang digunakan dalam objek sprite-nya. Pada animasi sprite, gambar yang digunakan adalah gambar bitmap, sedangkan animasi vektor menggunakan gambar vektor dalam objek sprite-nya. Penggunaan vektor ini juga mengakibatkan ukuran file animasi vektor menjadi lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan file animasi sprite.

7.animasi clay
Animasi ini sering disebut juga animasi doll (boneka). Animasi ini dibuat menggunakan boneka-boneka tanah liat atau material lain yang digerakkan perlahan-lahan, kemudian setiap gerakan boneka-boneka tersebut difoto secara beruntun, setelah proses pemotretan selesai, rangkaian foto dijalankan dalam kecepatan tertentu sehingga dihasilkan gerakan animasi yang unik. Contoh penerapan animasi ini adalah pada film Chicken Run dari Dream Work Pictures. Teknik animasi inilah yang menjadi cikal bakal animasi 3 Dimensi yang pembuatannya menggunakan alat bantu komputer.

8.animasi karakter
Animasi karakter biasanya digunakan dalam film kartun berbasis 3 dimensi, oleh karena itu ada juga yang menyebutnya sebagai animasi 3D. Pada animasi ini setiap karakter memiliki ciri dan gerakan yang berbeda tetapi bergerak secara bersamaan. Dalam pengerjaannya, animasi jenis ini sangat mengandalkan komputer, hanya pada permulaan saja menggunakan teknik manual, yaitu pada saat pembuatan sketsa model atau model patung yang nantinya di-scan dengan scanner biasa atau 3D Scanner. Setelah itu proses pembuatan objek dilakukan di komputer menggunakan perangkat lunak 3D modelling and animation, seperti Maya Unlimited, 3ds max dan lain sebagainya. Setelah itu dilakukan editting video, penambahan spesial efek dan sulih suara menggunakan perangkat lunak terpisah. Bahkan ada beberapa animasi dengan teknik ini yang menggunakan alam nyata sebagai latar cerita animasi tersebut.

DEFINISI BROADCASTING, ENTERTAINMENT, RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

multimedia
1. BROADCASTING

Broadcast adalah suatu proses pengiriman sinyal ke berbagai lokasi secara bersamaan baik melalui satelit, radio, televisi, komunikasi data pada jaringan dan lain sebagainya, dan bisa juga didefinisikan sebagai layanan server ke client yang menyebarkan data kepada beberapa client sekaligus dengan cara paralel dengan akses yang cukup cepat dari sumber video atau audio.
Broadcasting (dalam bahasa Indonesia adalah Kepenyiaran) yakni proses menyampaikan siaran melalui perangkat elektronika yang dinamakan Pemancar atau Transmitter untuk kemudian diterima oleh Si Penerima Siaran melalui alat penerima siaran yang disebut Receiver.

2. ENTERTAINMENT

Entertainment adalah segala sesuatu baik yang berbentuk kata-kata, tempat, benda maupun perilaku yang dapat menjadi penghibur. Hiburan bersifat subjektif, bergantung pada penikmatnya. Apabila subjek tersebut merasa terhibur terhadap sesuatu hal, maka hal itu dapat dikatakan suatu hiburan.
Berdasarkan pengertian di atas, dapat disimpulkan bahwa hiburan mencakup banyak hal, diantaranya musik, film, opera, permainan, olahraga, dan lain sebagainya. Berwisata juga dapat dikatakan sebagai upaya hiburan dengan menjelajahi alam ataupun mempelajari budaya.

3. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

Research & Development atau penelitian & pengembangan adalah sebuah strategi atau metode yang cukup ampuh untuk memperbaiki atau mengembangkan bahkan menyempurnakan suatu proses yang sudah dan sedang berjalan. Dalam multimedia hal ini sangat diperlukan untuk meneliti dan mengembangkan yang ada agar sesuai dengan keperluan pemakainya.

flood the capital

flood

Heavy flooding in the Indonesian capital this week has killed 15 people, driven thousands from their homes and paralyzed the sprawling city — and officials are warning that more water is on its way. Caused by unusually strong monsoon rains, the flood waters — often carrying trash and human waste — have inundated the city’s central business district, closed schools and offices, and entered the presidential palace.

With around 95,000 people affected in different areas of the city, authorities have declared a state of emergency to allow use of national funds and other resources. About 19,000 people have relocated from the worst affected districts to safer areas. January is typically the wettest month in Jakarta, the political and economic capital of southeast Asia’s largest country.

But the low-lying city has already experienced more rainfall since Tuesday than it usually gets in the entire month of January. Amid about a foot of water, workers scrambled Friday to clean up the mess near where a dike had burst a day earlier, flooding the central business district. Soldiers heaped sandbags on a railroad line to form a makeshift defense close to the dike.

The situation in the central district appeared to be improving, but some of the worst-hit areas of the city remained under water, with more flooding expected to arrive over the course of the day. A lot of the water falling in the vicinity of Jakarta, which has a population of around 10 million people, must go through the city’s rivers and canals before reaching the Java Sea.

Thousands of people have fled their homes in neighborhoods along the banks of the Ciliwung River, the cause of some of the worst flooding and considered by many to be one of the dirtiest waterways in Indonesia. In Kampung Melayu, an eastern neighborhood near the Ciliwung, many people remained at home Thursday, sitting on top of roofs or wading inside to try to salvage belongings and secure the premises. Large amounts of water were expected to flow down the Ciliwung on Friday, generated by rains over the hilly area around the city of Bogor, which lies south of Jakarta.

The National Disaster Mitigation Agency said nearly half of the 12 killed in the floods since Tuesday were electrocuted.

source : http://edition.cnn.com/2013/01/18/world/asia/indonesia-jakarta-floods/index.html

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a brief history Old Traford

old traford

The Early Years: 1878 – 1939

The story of Manchester United begins in 1878 when employees of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Company’s Carriage and Wagon Works requested permission and sponsorship from their employers to start a football team. Permission was given, and Newton Heath LYR (which stood for “Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway”) was born, playing at a pitch on North Road. Initially they played against other teams of railway workers, within their own company and against teams from other companies, but in 1885, they entered in the Manchester Cup competition and reached the final. The next year, they won the competition.

The Football Alliance

Although Newton Heath were not good enough to join the Football League, they were quickly outpacing their local competition. Newton Heath spent the first ten months of 1888 unbeaten at their home ground. However, the idea of inter-town football had caught on, and in 1889, a group of twelve clubs, Newton Heath among then, formed the Football Alliance. They finished eighth. The next year, Newton Heath began to sever their railway ties, dropping “LYR” from their official name. However, strong connections remained intact; although they no longer were sponsored by the company, most of their players were still LYR employees.

1892 proved to be a successful season for the “Heathens”, as they finished second to Nottingham Forest, after losing only three times all season. That same year, the Football League enlarged and, with the merger of the Alliance, divided into two divisions. Newton Heath and Nottingham Forest were invited to join the First Division. They finished last and needed a win against Small Heath in the test match against the Second Division champions to preserve their First Division status.

In 1893, the team moved to a new ground in Bank Street, Clayton, next to a chemical plant. It was said that when Newton Heath were losing, the plant would belch out acrid fumes in a bid to affect the visiting team. The 1893-94 campaign, however, was no better, and they once again were in the relegation playoff against Liverpool. This time Newton Heath were defeated 2-0 and gained the dubious honour of being the first team to be relegated to the Second Division.

Near-bankruptcy

The financial situation only worsened, dragging down their on-field play. They managed only a 10th place in the 1901 season and with ticket sales flagging and debts mounting, the club decided to hold a four-day bazaar to raise money. One of the attractions was a St. Bernard dog, which escaped on one of the nights after the bazaar had closed.

It was the escape and recapturing of the dog which led to the meeting between team captain Harry Stafford and John J Davies who would lead a group of businessmen. Together, they came up with £2,000 to save the club from bankruptcy. On April 28th 1902, Newton Heath was replaced by Manchester United Football Club, and John Henry Davies became the club president.

In 1903 the club took another important step by hiring their first real team manager, J Ernest Mangnall a charismatic publicist who knew how to work the media. Under his leadership, the team finished third in the Second Division. The following season, Manchester United set a record when they went 18 games undefeated between September 1904 and February 1905. Mangnall created United’s first successful side with a series of signings, eventually winning promotion in 1906 and reaching the quarterfinals of the F.A Cup.Among these signings was Billy Meredith the legendary winger who was probably the greatest player of that era.

Ernest Mangnall managed to sign star defender Herbert Burgess and Alec “Sandy” Turnbull also Jimmy bannister after a scandal hit Manchester City and forced them to sell off most of their team. It paid off, and Manchester United won their first League Championship in 1908. The next year, FA Cup success would follow as they beat Bristol City in the final 1-0. Sandy Turnbull scored the only goal and Billy Meredith was named man of the match.

 

all about Cristiano Ronaldo

cr7

Introduction

Cristiano Ronaldo Dos Santos Aviero or just plain old Cristiano Ronaldo as he better known is anything but a plain run of the mill footballer. His silky skills, dribbling ability, party tricks, superb swerving fee kicks, towering headers are all consolidated by his inner determination and will to win. However this obvious will to win sometimes leads the player into bending the rules slightly in order to turn the tide in favour of himself and teammates.

With all that said and done there is no doubt that Ronaldo has the potential to go down as one of the all time greats of football and could well surpass the exceptional heights reached by the likes of George Best, Pele, Diego Maradona and Johan Cruyff.

Sporting Lisbon Career

Cristiano Ronaldo started on the road to football superstardom at the age of eight when he joined local youth side CF Andorinha, where his father Jose was the the kitman. Two years later when the young Ronaldo was just ten years old he began to attract the attention of the island’s (Madeira) bigger clubs, namely CD Maritimo and CS Nacional. In a twist of fate the player signed for CS Nacional – the smaller of the two clubs – after a representative from the former club failed to turn for a meeting with the Andorinha manager.

After his new club won the league title the scouts at Sporting Lisbon were made aware of Cristiano Ronaldo’s budding talent and invited him over to the mainland for a three day trial which the player duly accepted. He then went on to impress the coaches so much during his time in Portugal’s capital that they quickly snapped him up for an undisclosed fee.

When Ronaldo was inducted into Sporting’s youth academy the other players made fun of his peculiar island accent, which left him feeling homesick. Being the determined fella that he is he shrugged off the taunts and eventualy became the first player in Sporting’s illustrious history to have turned out for the Under-16, Under-17, Under -18, Sporting Lisbon’s ‘B’ and first team in the same season, which only compunded the talent and potemtial he was showing.

Ronaldo made his Sporting debut against lower League side Atletico on 16 August 2001, aged just 16 years old. However the youung winger would have to wait over a year for his League debut, doing so on 29 September 2002 when he replaced Romanian international striker Marius Niculae as a 69th minute subsitiute in the 4-2 defeat at Sporting Brage. Just seven days later manager Laszlo Boloni deemed Cristiano Ronaldo ready to make his full league debut, which he did against Northwest outift Moreirense. The player repayed the managers faith by bagging a brace as Sporting ran out 3-0 winners to keep in touch with eventual league champions FC Porto. That season Cristiano Ronaldo would go on to make 31 appearances for the club in all competitions, getting himself on the scoresheet five times.

 

During the pre-season campaign of 2003-2004 a twist of fate would rear it’s head. Sporting had invited Manchester United to play a match to commemorate the opening of their Alvalade XXI stadium. The match took place on 6 August 2003, with Sporting running out 3-1 winners and so good was Ronaldo’s display on that summer’s night that Manchester United stars such as John O’shea (who had been left dumped on the seat of his pants by the winger’s jiggery-pokery during the game), Rio Ferdinand and Ryan Giggs. Just a few days later Sir Alex Ferguson tabled a £12.25m bid for the Ronaldo which was accepted by Sporting. On his arrival the manager gave the player the famous number 7 shirt which was worn by David Beckham in the prior season. Other notable players to have worn the magnificent 7 shirt include legends George Best, Bryan Robson and talismatic figure Eric Cantona.

Cristiano Ronaldo made his debut on 16 August 2003 when he replaced Nicky Butt in the 60th minute against Bolton Wanderers. At the time Manchester United were winning 1-0, through a superb Ryan Giggs free-kick. Despite this the team were struggling to find the second goal – which would secure victory against their Lancashire rivals. Ronaldo made an instant impact, little more than 10 minutes into his debut he charged down the left wing, jinked inside into the penalty area – leaving the floundering Nicky Hunt in his wake – and was cynically dragged down by Kevin Nolan. Referee Paul Durkin had no other choice than to point to the spot. Unfortunately Ruud Van Nistelrooy missed the penalty kick which was superbly saved by Wanderers stopper Jussi Jaaskelainen. However the young Portugeuse star was causing havoc all over the pitch with his quicksilver skills and lightening pace, the mayhem brought about by the player – in the Bolton defence – opened up gaps which his teammates exploited. United eventually ran out 4-0 victors with Cristiano Ronaldo picking up the Man of the Match award and the adoration of the Old Trafford faithful. After his initial impact the player was used sparingly by Sir Alex Ferguson, which meant he would have to wait until 1 November 2003 to score his first Manchester United goal, when he netted an 80th minute free-kick in the 3-0 home victory over Portsmouth.

That season the player would represent The Red Devils 40 times and contributing 6 goals including United’s opening goal in their 3-0 F.A. Cup final victory over Millwall at Cardiff’s Millenium Stadium . In addition to his breakthrough season he also broke into the Portugal national team, making his debut against Kazakhstan on 20 August 2003 when he came on as a second-half substitute in his country’s 1-0 victory. At the end of the season Cristiano Ronaldo was drafted into Luiz Felipe Scolari’s Euro 2004 squad for the tournament which was to be held in player’s homeland. The winger had a superb competition and would it not have been for the infamous Wayne Rooney sending-off incident would’ve walked away with the Young Player of the Tournament trophy, the prize was subsequently given to Germany’s Lukas Podolski.

After the tournament the player was made a scapegoat in the Englsh media for England’s demise and as a result it seemed that the whole country had turned against the player. Quite rightly Ronaldo had his reservations about returning to Old Trafford, fearing for his safety. But after he was reassured by Sir Alex Ferguson and assistant coach and fellow countryman Carlos Queiroz, decided to brazen things out. Cristiano Ronaldo would have to wait two years after his first success to get his hands on more silverware, when Manchester United demolished an overwhelmed Wigan Athletic 4-0 to win the 2006 League cup netting The Reds third goal in the process.

The following season would turn put to be his best yet, with the wonderful winger being a key player as Manchester United brought the Premier League trophy back to Manchester for the first time in three years. The Portuguese star bagged himself an incredible 17 league goals in only 34 games and picked up the PFA Player and Young Player of the Year award as well as the Football Writers’ Player of the Season accolade. 2007-2008 saw Cristiano Ronaldo elevate himself into the rhelms of superstardom when on the way to helping Manchester United win the Premier League and UEFA Champions League double scored a breathtaking 42 goals in just 48 appearances, heading both competitions’ scoring charts to boot. If this wasn’t enough he won Europe’s prestigious Golden Boot award – finishing four strikes ahead of Real Mallorca’s Dani Guiza. Wait there’s more. He also broke George Best’s club record of 32 goals for a winger in a season, doing so on 19 March 2008 with more than two months of the campaign still to play. He evntually finished the season just four goals shy of Denis Laws record of 46

inquiry letter

1. Arrange complete business letter

tugas1

 

2. Theory of inquiry letter

Definition of Inquiry Letter

A letter of inquiry asks someone for specific information. In some cases, such as a request for promotional material, the recipient will have a clear interest in responding to your letter. In other cases, such as a request for specific information on a product, the recipient may or may not be as motivated to respond quickly. Consequently, always make the tone of the letter friendly and make it easy for the recipient to identify and provide the information you need.

Format of a Letter of Inquiry

Follow this format in writing a letter of inquiry :
a. In the first paragraph, identify yourself and, if appropriate, your position, and your institution or firm.

b. In the second paragraph, briefly explain why you are writing and how you will use the requested information. Offer to keep the response confidential if such an offer seems reasonable.

c. List the specific information you need. You can phrase your requests as questions or as a list of specific items of information. In either case, make each item clear and discrete.

d. Conclude your letter by offering your reader some incentive for responding.

3. The Example of Inquiry Letter and Replay For Inquiry Letter

inquiry1

 

respone

 

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